However, all was not lost.

### Why radiocarbon measurements are not true calendar ages

The proportion of C in the atmosphere, and hence in living things, is not constant but varies over the centuries, and it also varies between the atmosphere and the oceans. Radiocarbon dating of marine organisms can be out by up to several hundred years, and this effect can occur to a lesser degree in terrestrial life where sea-food forms part of the diet. The mass spectrometry of the Greyfriars bone samples reveals that the individual in question had a high-protein diet including a significant proportion of seafood.

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This would seem reasonable for a medieval nobleman, and certainly for a member of the royal family. This does not, of course, prove that the bones are those of Richard III. And it also tells us something about what he had for supper.

## Radiocarbon Dating and Archaeology

Search Site only in current section. By using dead trees of different but overlapping ages, you can build up a library of tree rings of different calendar ages. This has now been done for Bristlecone Pines in the U. A and waterlogged Oaks in Ireland and Germany, and Kauri in New Zealand to provide records extending back over the last 14, years.

For older periods we are able to use other records of with idependent age control to tell us about how radiocarbon changed in the past. The information from measurements on tree rings and other samples of known age including speleothems, marine corals and samples from sedimentary records with independent dating are all compiled into calibration curves by the IntCal group.

For more detail see the OxCal manual. Calibration of radiocarbon determinations is in principle very simple. If you have a radiocarbon measurement on a sample, you can try to find a tree ring with the same proportion of radiocarbon.

## Radiocarbon dating and analysis

Since the calendar age of the tree rings is known, this then tells you the age of your sample. The pair of blue curves show the radiocarbon measurements on the tree rings plus and minus one standard deviation and the red curve on the left indicates the radiocarbon concentration in the sample.

The grey histogram shows possible ages for the sample the higher the histogram the more likely that age is. The results of calibration are often given as an age range.

## Richard III - Radiocarbon dating - Process/analysis/results - University of Leicester

This is not intended to be an exhaustive summary of radiocarbon calibration conventions but a brief guide. The first indicates the proportion of radiocarbon atoms in the sample as compared to samples modern in The second is directly derived from this on the assumption that the half-life of radiocarbon is years and the amount of radiocarbon in the atmosphere has been constant.

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The cal prefix indicates that the dates are the result of radiocarbon calibration using tree ring data.